Study on Genetic Diversity of Resistance to the Rust in Iranian Garlic Clones (Allium sativum L.) Using NBS profiling Technique

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Horticulture science and Agronomy, Science and Research Branch Tehran, Islamic Azad University, Iran

2 Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection, Research Department of Plant Disease

3 University College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

4 Plant Protection Research Department, Zanjan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Zanjan, Iran


Garlic rust is one of the most important diseases of garlic worldwide, which hardly can be controlled by applying fungicides while the weather condition goes on the favor of the disease progress. The NBS-profiling approach is one of the effective methods for separating the replicated parts of resistance gene analogues (RGA). In this study, 12 primers (NBS-LRR) were used on 16 Iranian garlic clones. Out of 499 scored marker sites in the range of 100 to 800 bp for NBS, from which 477 sites were multi-faceted (95.59 percent). The highest number of marker sites was for the primer combination NBS1-AluI and the lowest was for the primer combination NBS7-RsaI. The highest polymorphism occurred with combination NBS2-AluI and NBS1-AluI with 70 alleles and the lowest polymorphic composition occurred in NBS7- RsaI combination. The results of cluster analysis using UPGMA divided the clones into eight separate groups. This study showed that there is a significant diversity in the homologues of resistance genes in the Iranian garlic clones, which can be exploited in plant breeding programs. In addition, the results indicated that the NBS profiling technique is an efficient method for investigation on diversity of resistance genes in various plant species, including garlic. Using of NBS-profiling technique to study the diversity of resistance genes in garlic clones was addressed for the first time in the world in this study.


Main Subjects

[1] FAOSTAT (2018) http://www.  ostat/en/#data/QC
[2] Agrios, G. 2005. Plant Pathology. Academic Press. EBook ISBN: 9780080473789. 952p.
[3] Bai, G.H. and Shaner, G.E. 1994. Scab of wheat: prospect for control. Plant Disease, 78:760-776.
[4] Roelfs, A.P., Singh, R.P., Saari, E.E. 1992. Rust disease of wheat: concepts and methods of disease management. CIMMIT, Mexico, D.F. 81p.
[5] Vander Linden, C.G., Wouters, D.C.A.E., Mihalka, V., Kochieva, E.Z., Smulders, M.J.M. and Vosman, B. 2004. Efficient targeting of plant disease resistance loci using NBS profiling. Theoretical Applied Genetics, 109:384-393.
[6] Staskawicz, B.J., Ausubel, F.M., Baker, B.J., Ellis, J.G. and Jones, J.D.G. 1995. Molecular genetics of plant disease resistance. Science, 268: 661-667.
[7] Hulbert, S.H., Webb, C.A., Smith, S.M. and Suu, Q. 2001. Resistance gene complexes: Evolution and utilization Annul. Rev. Phytopathol.39:285-312.
[8] Baker, B., Zambriski, P., Staskawicz, B. and Dinesh-Kumar, S.P. 1997. Signaling in plant-microbe interactions. Science, 276: 726-733.
[9] Michelmore, R. 2000. Genomic approaches to plant disease resistance. Current Opinion Plant Biology, 3: 125-131.
[10] Meyers, B.C., Dicker man, A.W., Michel more, R.W., Sivaramakrishnan, S., Sobral, B.W. and Young, N.D. 1999. Plant disease resistance genes encode members of an ancient and diverse protein family within the nucleotide-binding superfamily. Plant Journal, 20(3): 317-332.
[11] Pan, Q., Liu, Y., Budai Hadrian, O., Sela, M., Carmal Goren, L., Zamir, D. and Fluhr, R. 2000a. Comparative genetics of nucleotide binding site leucine rich repeat resistance gene homologues in the genomes of two dicotyledons: Tomato and Arabidopsis. Genetics, 155: 309– 322.
[12] Pan, Q., Wendel, J. and Fluhr, R. 2000b. Divergent evolution of plant NBS-LRR resistance gene homologues in dicot and cereal genomes. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 50: 203-213.
[13] Kanazin, V., Marek, L.F. and Shoemaker, R.C. 1996. Resistance gene analogs are conserved and clustered in soybean. Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 93:11746-11750.
 [14] Anjomshoaa, A., Jafary, H., Hassandokht, M.R., Taheri, M. and Abdossi, V. 2019. Study on relationship between morphological and physiological traits with resistance to rust fungus (Puccinia allii) in Iranian garlic clones. Advances in Horticultural Science, 33(4): 543-552.
[15] Clifford, BC. and Jones, D.G. 1983. Cereal Diseases. BASF United Kingdom, 309 p.
[16] Dhingra, O.D. and Sinclair, JB. 1995. Basic plant pathology methods. CRC, Press, 44 p.
 [17] Saghai Maroof, M. A., Biyashev, R. M., Yang, G. P., Zhang, Q. and Allard, R. W. 1994. Extraordinarily polymorphic microsatellite DNA in barely: Species diversity, chromosomal Locations and population dynamics. Proceeding of National Academy of Sciences, USA 91: 5466-5570.
[18] Powell, W., Morgant, M., Andre, C., Hanafey, M., Vogel, J., Tingey, S. and Rafalasky, A. 1996. The comparison of RFLP, RAPD, AFLP and SSR (microsatellite) markers for germplasm analysis. Mol Breeding, 2: 225-238.
[19] Nagy, S., Poczai, P., Cernak, I., Mousapour Gorji, A., Hegedus, G. and Taller, J. 2012. PICcalc: an online program to calculate polymorphic information content for molecular genetic studies. Biochemical Genetics, 50:670-672.
 [20] Peakall, R. and Smouse, P.E. 2007. GenAlEx V6.1: Genetic Analysis in Exel. Population Genetic Software for teaching and research. Canberra: Australian National University.
[21] Botstein, DR., White, L., Skolnick, M. and Davis. 1980. Construction of genetic linkage map in man using restriction fragment length polymorphism. American Journal of Human Biology, 32:314-33.
[22] Mantovani, P., Van der Linden, G., Maccaferri, M., Corinna Sanguineti, M. and Tuberosa, R. 2006. Nucleotide-binding site (NBS) profiling of genetic diversity in durum wheat. Genome, 49(11): 1473-1480.
 [23] International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI) .2000. Descriptors for Allium. Rome, Italy .43p.
[24] Maab, H.I. and Klass, M. 1995. Intra specific differentiation of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) by isozyme and RAPD markers. Theorical and Applied Genetics, 91: 89-97.