Morphological and anatomical changes in stems of Aeluropus littoralis under salt stress

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

1 Department of Plant Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.

2 Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.

3 Genetics and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute of Tabarestan, Sari University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Sari, Iran.

4 Department of Basic Sciences, University of Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Sari, Iran.

Abstract

Salinity is one of the most important agricultural issues causing considerable yield reduction in agricultural crops. The main adverse effects of salinity are due to excess amount of sodium ions that is toxic to plant cells. Most halophytes are equipped with defense mechanisms enabling them to tolerate the salty habitats. Among grass plants, Aeluropus littoralis is a known monocots halophyte that can tolerate harsh saline conditions. In this study, salt treatment was applied in three levels of 0, 200 and 400 mM NaCl after 45 days and biological samples were collected at 7, 14 and 21 days after treatment (DAT). For microscopic analysis, the tissues were cross-sectioned and stained using methylene blue for lignified tissues and Congo red for cellulosic tissues. The amounts of Na+ and K+ were measured by flame photometer and the content of lignin was measured by polymeric thioglycolic acid derivatives method. The results showed that the amount of Na+ increased 13-fold, while the stem length, stem diameter, vascular bundle number, metaxylem diameter, phloem diameter, K+, fresh weight and dry weight decreased significantly by 35%, 48%, 59%, 19%, 25%, 45%, 64% and 55% under salt treatment, respectively. The amount of lignin in stem did not significantly change under salinity. According to these results, A. littoralis can tolerate saline habitats by different adaptation strategies like the limitation of minerals transition and reduction of plant biomass. Furthermore, the concentration of lignin in metaxylem tissues and stele parenchyma led to increased resistance of halophytes in excess amounts of Na+.

Keywords

Main Subjects


[1]       Abbasi, F. 2008. The effects of salinity and aridity on some of the growth properties of Aeluropus logopoides and Aeluropus litttoralis. J Sci (Islamic Azad University), 17:121-138.

[2]       Abbasi, F., Khavarinethad, R.A., Kouchaki, A. and Fahimi, H. 2002. Effect of salinity on growth and physiological aspects of Aeluropus littoralis. Desert (Biaban), 7:101-110.

[3]       Bandani, M. and Abdolzadeh, A. 2007. Effects of silicon nutrition on salinity tolerance of Puccinellia distans (jacq.) parl. J Agric Sci Nat Resour, 14:111-119.

[4]       Barhoumi, Z., Djebali, W., Smaoui, A., Chaïbi, W. and Abdelly, C. 2007. Contribution of NaCl excretion to salt resistance of Aeluropus littoralis (Willd) Parl. J Plant Physiol, 164:842-850.

[5]       Boughalleb, F., Denden, M. and Tiba, B.B. 2009. Anatomical changes induced by increasing NaCl salinity in three fodder shrubs, Nitraria retusa, Atriplex halimus and Medicago arborea. Acta Physiol Plant, 31:947-960.

[6]       Chinnusamy, V., Jagendorf, A. and Zhu, J.-K. 2005. Understanding and improving salt tolerance in plants. Crop Sci, 45:437-488.

[7]       Fakhrfeshani, M., Shahriari-Ahmadi, F., Niazi, A., Moshtaghi, N., and Zare-Mehrjerdi, M. 2015. The effect of salinity stress on Na+, K+ concentration, Na+/K+ ratio, electrolyte leakage and HKT expression profile in roots of Aeluropus littoralis. Journal of Plant Molecular Breeding, 3: 1-10.

[8]       Graham, M.Y. and Graham, T.L. 1991. Rapid accumulation of anionic peroxidases and phenolic polymers in soybean cotyledon tissues following treatment with Phytophthora megasperma f. sp. glycinea wall glucan. Plant Physiol, 97:1445-1455.

[9]       Gulzar, S., Khan, M.A. and Ungar, I.A. 2003. Salt tolerance of a coastal salt marsh grass. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal, 34:2595-2605.

[10]     Gulzar, S., Khan, M.A., Ungar, I.A. and Liu, X. 2005. Influence of salinity on growth and osmotic relations of Sporobolus ioclados. Pak J Bot, 37:119-129.

[11]     Hameed, M., Ashraf, M. and Naz, N. 2011. Anatomical and physiological characteristics relating to ionic relations in some salt tolerant grasses from the salt range, Pakistan. Acta Physiol Plant, 33:1399-1409.

[12]     Hoagland, D.R. 1940. Salt accumulation by plant cells, with special reference to metabolism and experiments on barley roots. In Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 8:181-194.

[13]     Jamil, M., Deog Bae, L., Kwang Yong, J., Ashraf, M., Sheong Chun, L. and Eui Shik, R. 2006. Effect of salt (NaCl) stress on germination and early seedling growth of four vegetables species. J Cent Eur Agric, 7:273-282.

[14]     Jannesar, M., Saboora, A. and Razavi, K. 2009. Effects of ABA and Ca2+ on the changes of some biochemical compounds during adaptation to salinity in Aeluropus lagopoides. Iranian J Rangel For Plant Breed Genet Res, 17:15-28.

[15]     Jouanin, L. and Lapierre, C. 2012. Lignins: biosynthesis, biodegradation and bioengineering, Academic Press.

[16]     Kelij, S. 2013. Anatomic and metabolic changes of lignin deposition during various developmental stages in halophyte (Aeluropus littoralis Parl.). PhD Thesis, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran.

[17]     Koocheki, A. and Mohalati, M. 1994. Feed value of some halophytic range plants of arid regions of Iran, Springer, 249-253.

[18]     Mahmood, A., Athar, M., Qadri, R. and Mahmood, N. 2008. Effect of NaCl salinity on growth, nodulation and total nitrogen content in Sesbania sesban. Agric Conspec Sci, 73:137-141.

[19]     Marschner, H. 2011. Marschner's mineral nutrition of higher plants, Academic press.

[20]     Mehrinfar, F., Nematzadeh, G., Pirdashti, H. and Mobaser, H.R. 2014. Effect of salinity on ion content, plant pigments, soluble sugars and starch of halophyte plant (Aeluropus littoralis). New Find Agric, 3:251-261.

[21]     Mitchell, J., Thomsen, C., Graves, W. and Shennan, C. 1999. Cover crops for saline soils. J Agron Crop Sci, 183:167-178.

[22]     Moameni, A. 2011. Geographical distribution and salinity levels of soil resources of Iran. Iranian J Soil Res (Formerly Soil And Water Sciences), 24:203-215.

[23]     Munns, R., Wallace, P.A., Teakle, N.L. and Colmer, T.D. 2010. Measuring soluble ion concentrations (Na+, K+, Cl) in salt-treated plants. Plant Stress Tolerance: Methods and Protocols, pp.371-382.

[24]     Navarro, A., Tolivia, J. and Valle, E.d. 1999. Congo red method for demonstrating amyloid in paraffin sections. J Histotechnol, 22:305-308.

[25]     Naz, N., Hameed, M., Nawaz, T., Batool, R., Ashraf, M., Ahmad, F. and Ruby, T. 2013. Structural adaptations in the desert halophyte Aeluropus lagopoides (L.) Trin. ex Thw. under high salinity. J Biol Res Thessalon, 19:150-164.

[26]     Phirouzabadi, A., Jafari, M., Sharifabad, H., Azarnivand, H. and Abbasi, H.R. 2009. Investigation of the morphologic-physiologic changes of Puccinellia distans and Aeluropus littoralis to salinity and drought resistance. Iran J Range Desert Res, 16:1-10.

[27]     Santiago, R., Barros-Rios, J. and Malvar, R.A. 2013. Impact of cell wall composition on maize resistance to pests and diseases. Int J Mol Sci, 14:6960-6980.

[28]     Srivastava, L.M. 2002. Plant growth and development: hormones and environment, Academic press.

[29]     Tanji, K.K. 1995. Agricultural salinity assessment and management. Scientific Publisher, Jodhpur.

[30]     Tipirdamaz, R., Gagneul, D., Duhazé, C., Aïnouche, A., Monnier, C., Özkum, D. and Larher, F. 2006. Clustering of halophytes from an inland salt marsh in Turkey according to their ability to accumulate sodium and nitrogenous osmolytes. Environ Exper Bot, 57:139-153.

[31]     Zarinkamar, F. and Farkhah, A.S. 2005. Comparative studies between different aspects of the three halophyte speacies, Salsola dendroides, Aeluropus lagopoides, and Alhagi persarum. Pajouhesh Sazandegi, 18:50-66.

[32]     Zekki, H., Gauthier, L. and Gosselin, A. 1996. Growth, productivity, and mineral composition of hydroponically cultivated greenhouse tomatoes, with or without nutrient solution recyclingJ. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 121:1082-1088.

[33]     Zhang, G.H., Su, Q., An, L.J. and Wu, S. 2008. Characterization and expression of a vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter gene from the monocot halophyte Aeluropus littoralis. Plant Physiol Biochem, 46:117-126.