Diallel analysis of combining ability and heterosis for yield and yield attributes in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

Document Type : Original research paper


1 Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202, Bangladesh

2 Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Mymensingh, Bangladesh


Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is one of the major oilseed crops of the world and it is an important source of protein in many countries. To study the nature of combining ability and heterosis for yield and related attributes a 4 × 4 full diallel experiment was conducted at the experimental plot of Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Data on various quantitative traits including yield were recorded. Significant differences among the parents and their hybrids were observed for yield and related traits. The analysis of variance for general combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA) and reciprocal combining ability also showed significant variations for all the studied traits. The GCA and SCA reflected that these traits were controlled by both additive and non-additive genes. Predominant regulation by non-additive gene action suggesting selection at a later generation would be much effective. Significant reciprocal effect for all the traits indicates role of maternal effect in the expression for these traits. Genotypes GC (24)-1-1-1 and China Badam were found suitable combiners for number of seeds per pod, 100-pod weight, 100-seed weight, shelling percentage, and yield per plant. Result of mean and GCA suggested that the genotypes have good ability to transfer these important quantitative traits. The SCA and heterosis revealed that the F1 obtained from the cross GC (24)-1-1-1 × China Badam was suitable specific combiner among the F1’s for most of the traits. The F1 may further be exploited for isolating the desirable segregates of these traits for maximizing yield.


[1] Alam, M. K., Nath, U. K., Azad, M. A. K., Alam, M. A. and Khan, A. A. 2013. Combining ability analysis for yield and yield contributing traits of groundnut. J Sci Tech, 11: 106-111.
[2] Janila, P., Nigam, S.N., Pandey, M.K., Nagesh, P. and Varshney, R.K. 2013. Groundnut improvement: Use of genetic and genomic tools. Front Plant Sci, 2013: 4.
[3] Janila, P., Variath, M.T., Pandey, M.K., Desmae, H., Motagi, B.N., Okori, P., Manohar, S.S., Rathnakumar, A.L., Radhakrishnan, T., Liao, B. and Varshney, R.K. 2016. Genomic tools in groundnut breeding program: status and perspectives. Front Plant Sci, 7: 289.
[4] Miah, M. A. M. and Mondal, M. R. I. 2017. Oilseeds sector of Bangladesh: challenges and opportunities. SAARC J Agric, 15(1): 161-172.
[5] BBS, 2019, Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, Agricultural Statistical Year book of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
[6] Hamid, M.A., Azad, M.A.K. and Howelider, M.A.R. 2006. Development of three groundnut varieties with improved quantitative and qualitative traits through induced mutation. Plant Mut Rep, 1(2): 14-16
[7] Lambeth, C., Lee, B.C., O‟Malleya, D. and Wheeler, N. 2001. Polymix breeding with parental analysis of progeny: an alternative to fullsib breeding and testing. Theor Appl Genet, 103:930–943.
[8] Huang, M., Chen, L.Y. and Chen, Z.Q. 2015. Diallel analysis of combining ability and heterosis for yield and yield components in rice by using positive loci. Euphytica, 205: 37–50.
[9] Asfaliza, R., Rafii, M.Y., Saleh, G., Omar, O. and Puteh, A. 2012. Combining ability and heritability of selected rice varieties for grain quality traits. Aust J Crop Sci, 6: 1718–1723.
[10] Fasahat, P., Rajabi, A., Rad, J.M. and Derera, J. 2016. Principles and utilization of combining ability in plant breeding. Biomet Biostat Int J, 4: 00085
[11] Boraiah, K. M., Goud, I. S., Gejli, K., Somasekar, C. K. and Vetriventhan, M. 2014. Combining ability and gene action for yield and yield contributing traits in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Legume Res, 39 (1): 1-5.
[12] Hariprasanna, K., Lal, C., Radhakrishnan, T., Gor, H. K. and Chikani, B. M. 2008. Analysis of diallel cross for some physical-quality traits in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Euphytica, 160(1):49-57.
[13] Azad, M., Kalam, A., Hamid, M., Rafii, M. Y. and Malek, M. A. 2014. Combining ability of pod yield and related traits of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) under salinity stress. The Sci World J, 2014: Article ID 589586.
[14] Khute, A.K., Rao, S.S., Painkra, O. and Markam, N. 2018. Combining ability for yield and yield components in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci, 7(2): 2798-2804.
[15] Amoah, A.R., Akromah, R., Asibuo, J.Y., Wireko-Kena, A., Asare, K. B. and Lamptey, M. 2020. Mode of inheritance and combining ability of oleic acid content in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Ecol Genet Genom, 17:100064
[16] Sales, N., Bartolome, V., Caneda, A., Gulles, A., Morantte, R.I.Z., Nora, L., Raquel, A.M., Relente, C.E., Talay, D. and Ye, G. 2013. PB Tools software for Plant Breeding. International Rice Research Institute, College, Losbanon, Laguna, Philippines.
[17] Griffing, B. 1956. Concept of general and specific combining ability in relation to diallel crossing systems. Aust J Biol Sci, 9(4): 463-493.
[18] Rai, B. 1979. Heterosis Breeding. Agro-biological Publication, Delhi, India. pp.183.
[19] Nath, U.K., Azad, M.A.K., Alam, M.A. and Khan, A.A. 2013. Genetics of yield and related traits in groundnut using diallel analysis. Bull Inst Trop Agri Kyushu Uni, 36(1): 045-059.
[20] Sibhatu, B., Harfe, M. and Tekle, G. 2017. Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) varieties evaluation for yield and yield components at Tanqua-Abergelle district, Northern Ethiopia. Sky J Agric Res, 6(3): 057- 061.
[21] Naeem-Ud-Din, Mahmood, A., Khattak, G.S.S., Saeed, I. and Hassan, M.F. 2009. High yielding groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.), variety “golden”. Pak J Bot, 41(5): 2217-2222.
[22] Yol, E., Furat, S., Upadhyaya, H.D. and Uzun, B. 2018. Characterization of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) collection using quantitative and qualitative traits in the Mediterranean Basin. J Integr Agric, 17(1): 63–75
[23] Nigam, S.N. and Aruna, R. 2008. Improving breeding efficiency for early maturity in peanut. Plant Breed Rev, 30: 295–322.
[24] Rehman, A.U., Wells, R., Isleib and T.G. 2001. Reproductive allocation on branches of virginia-type peanut cultivars bred for yield in North Carolina. Crop Sci, 41: 72–77.
[25] Kumar, S.I., Govindaraj, M. and Kumar, V.K. 2010. Estimation of genetic diversity of new advanced breeding lines of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). World J Agric Sci, 6:547–554.
[26] Rahmianna, A.A., Wijanarko, A., Purnomo, J. and Baliadi, Y. 2020. Yield performance of several peanut cultivars grown in dryland with semi-arid climate in Sumba Timur, Indonesia. Biodiversitas, 21 (12): 5747-5757
[27] Nath UK and Alam MS. 2002. Genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance of yield and related traits of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). J Biol Sci, 2: 762–764.
[28] Luz, L. N., Santos, R. C. and Filho, P. A. M. 2011. Correlations and path analysis of peanut traits associated with the peg. Crop Breed App Biotechnol, 11: 88–93.
[29] Swamy, B.P.M., Upadhyaya, H.D., Goudar, P.V.K., Kullaiswamy, B.Y. and Singh, S. 2003. Phenotypic variation for agronomic characteristics in a groundnut core collection for Asia. Field Crops Res, 84: 359–371.
[30] Upadhyaya, H.D., Reddy, L.J., Gowda, C.L.L. and Singh, S. 2006. Identification of diverse groundnut germplasm: Sources of early-maturity in a core collection. Field Crop Res, 97: 261–267.
[31] Nayak, P.G., Venkataiah and Revathi, P. 2020. Combining Ability and Heterosis Studies for Yield and Yield Contributing Characters in Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Curr J Appl Sci Technol, 39(48): 566-573
[32] Dapaah, H., K., Mohammed, I. and Awuah, R. T. 2014. Growth and yield performance of groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) in response to plant density. Int J Plant Soil Sci, 3: 1069–1082.
[33] Anothai, J., Patanothai, A., Jogloy, S., Pannangpetch, K., Boote, K. J. and Hoogenboom, G., 2008. A sequential approach for determining the cultivar coefficients of peanut lines using end-of-season data of crop performance trials. Field Crop Res, 108:169–178.
[34] Kamdar, J. H., Jasani, M. D., Bera, S. K. and Georrge, J. J. 2020. Effect of selection response for yield related traits in early and later generations of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Crop Breed Appl Biotechnol, 20: e317320215.
[35] Neya, F.B., Sanon, E., Koita, K., Zagre, B.M.B. and Sankara, P. 2017. Diallel analysis of pod yield and 100 seeds weight in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) using GRIFFING and HAYMAN methods. J Appl Biosci, 116:11619-11627.
[36] Pramesh, Kh., Chanu, H. P. and Sharma, P. R. 2017. General and specific combining ability analysis for yield and yield contributing characters in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Electron J Plant Breed, 8(3):973-979.
[37] Reddy, A. T., Sekhar, M. R., Vijayabharathi, A., Pathy, T. L., Reddy, G. L. and Jayalakshmi, V. 2017. Studies on combining ability and heterosis for yield and its component traits in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Int J Cur Microbiol App Sci, 6(12): 551-559.
[38] Zongo A., Nana, A. T., Sawadogo, M., Konate, A.K., Sankara, P., Ntare, B.R. and Desmae, H. 2017. Variability and correlations among groundnut populations for early leaf spot, pod yield, and agronomic traits. Agronomy, 7(3): 52
[39] Oppong-Sekyere, D., Akromah, R., Ozias-Akins, P. and Laary, J. K., Gimode, D. 2019. Heritability studies of drought tolerance in groundnuts using the North Carolina design II fashion and variance component method. J Plant Breed Crop Sci, 11(9): 234-253.
[40] Kenga, R., Alabi, S.O. and Gupta, S.C. 2004. Combining ability studies in tropical sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). Field Crop Res, 88 (2–3): 251–260.
[41] Boraiah, K. M., Goud, S., Gejli, K., Konda, C. R. and Babu, H. P. 2012. Heterosis for yield and yield attributing traits in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Legume Res: An Int J, 35(2):119-125.
[42] Prahalada G.D and Boraiah K.M. 2010. Estimation of heterosis for yield and yield attributing traits in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). DOI:10.13140/2.1.3890.6245.
[43] Gor, H.K., Dhaduk, L.K. and Lata, R. 2012. Heterosis and inbreeding depression for pod yield and its components in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Electron J Plant Breed, 3(3): 868-874.
[44] John, K. and Reddy, R.P. 2014. Combining ability and heterosis for yield and water use efficiency traits in groundnut. Legume Res - An Int J, 373: 235-244.
[45] Patil, S., Shivanna, S., Irappa, B. M. and Shweta. 2015. Genetic variability and character association studies for yield and yield attributing components in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Int J Recent Sci Res, 6(6): 4568-4570.
[46] Waghmode, B.D., Kore, A. B., Navhale, V.C., Sonone, N.G. and Bhave, S.G. 2017. Heterosis for pod yield and its component traits in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Electron J Plant Breed, 8: 1140-1147.
Volume 7, Issue 2
December 2021
Pages 50-62
  • Receive Date: 07 May 2021
  • Revise Date: 14 July 2021
  • Accept Date: 01 September 2021
  • First Publish Date: 01 September 2021