Assessment of genetic diversity and photosynthetic pigments among wild populations of Yellow Flag (Iris pseudacorus)

Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

1 Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran

2 Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran.

3 Biotechnology department of Gorgan Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Gorgan, Iran

4 , Biotechnology department of Gorgan Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Gorgan, Iran

Abstract

Yellow flag (Iris pseudacorus) is a native plant with ornamental and medicinal properties in horticulture science. 16 ecotypes of I. pseudacorus species were collected and classified into three populations based on geographical location in the current study. The genetic diversity of I. pseudacorus was assayed using 16 ISSR markers. Photosynthetic pigments, including chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, and carotenoids, were measured by the spectrophotometry method. The primers generated 874 scalable bars ranging in size from 100-1200 bp. The polymorphism percentage of all primers was 100%. The primers ISSR_55 produced the most bands (234 bands in total), the highest marker index, and the highest amount of polymorphic information content (PIC). Primer ISSR-13 is in second place with a total PIC of 0.84. Also, the data obtained from the scoring tapes were analyzed by parsing the original coordinates. The analysis results showed that the first, second, and third components contained 29.88%, 21.24%, and 16.52% of the information, respectively. The results showed that genetic diversity within populations (97%) is more significant than diversity among populations (3%). The spectrophotometry results showed photosynthetic pigments obtained in the Q (Jouybar) location with the highest sunlight. Our results indicated that ISSR markers revealed the genetic relationships of Yellow flag samples for different agro-ecological adaptations. ISSR is a superb molecular tool to research the genetic variability of I. pseudacorus.

Keywords

Main Subjects

  • Arango J, Beltrán J, Nuñez J, Chavarriaga P. 2016. Evidence of epigenetic mechanisms affecting carotenoids. In: Stange C (ed) Carotenoids in nature: Biosynthesis, regulation and function. Springer, Cham, 295–307.
  • Barnes JD, balaguer L, Manrique E, Elvira S, Davison AW. 1992. A reappraisal of the use of DMSO for the extraction and determination of chlorophylls a and b in lichens and higher plants. Environ Exp Bot, (32)2: 85-100.
  • Bucci G, Menozzi P. 1995. Genetic variation of RAPD markers in a Picea abies Population. J Hered, 75: 188-197.
  • Chen JW, Kuang SB, Long GQ, Yang SC, Meng ZG, Li LG, Chen J, Zhang GH. 2016. Photosynthesis, light energy partitioning, and photoprotection in the shade-demanding species Panax notoginseng under high and low level of growth irradiance. Functional Plant Biol, 43: 479-491.
  • Dashwood RH, Ho E. 2007. Dietary histone deacetylase inhibitors: from cells to mice to man. Semin. Cancer Biol, 17: 363–369.
  • Dhami N., Cazzonelli CI. 2020. Environmental impacts on carotenoid metabolism in leaves. Plant Growth Regul, 92: 455–
  • Emarat-pardaz J, Moharramnejad S, Panahandeh J, Chamani M, Zadeh Esfahlan M, Karbalaei Khiav H. 2019. Effect of light intensity on growth traits, photosynthetic and total hypericin in Topaz cultivar and Mishu ecotype of Hypericum perforatum. Eco-Phytochem J Med Plant, 7(3): 53-63.
  • Hafezi Shahroodian S, Azadfar D, Soltanloo H, Ramezanpour S. 2011. Genetic variability in natural Iranian populations of Cupressus sempervirens horizontalis in Caspian Sea coastward assessed by SSR markers. Plant Omics, 4(1): 19-24.
  • Hamrick JL, Godt MJW. 1989. Effects of life history traits on genetic diversity in plant species. Online J Biol Sci, 35(1345): 1291-1298.
  • Hamza H, Abederrahim MA, Elbekkay M, Ferchichi A. 2013. Comparison of the effectiveness of ISSR and SSR markers in determination of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) agronomic trait. Am J Crop Sci, 7 (6): 763–769.
  • Ivanov LA., Ivanova LA, Ronzhina DA. 2013. Changes in the chlorophyll and carotenoid contents in the leaves of steppe plants along a latitudinal gradient in South Ural. Russ J Plant Physiol, 60: 812–820.
  • Jaca T, Mkhize V. 2015. Distribution of Iris pseudacorus (Linnaeus, 1753) in South Africa. Bioinvasions Res, 4(4):249-253.
  • Johnson DE. 1998. Applied multivariate methods for data analysis. Duxbury Press, New York, U.S.A.
  • Johnson RA, Wichern DW. 1996. Applied multivariate methods for data analysis. Sterling Book House, New Delhi.
  • Jozghasemi S, Rabiei V, Soleymani A, Khalighi A. 2016. Karyotype analysis of seven Iris species native to Iran. Caryologia, 69(4): 351–361.
  • Kassak P. 2012. Total flavonoids and phenolics content of the chosen genus iris Acta Univ Agric et Silvic. Mendelianae Brun, lx, 119-126.
  • Lamote V, Roldán-Ruiz I, Coart E, De Loose M, Van Bockstaele E. 2002. A study of genetic variation in Iris pseudacorus populations using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). Aquat Bot, 73: 19–31.
  • Makarevitch I, Golovnina K, Scherbik S, Blinov A. 2003. Phylogenetic Relationships of the Siberian Iris Species Inferred from Noncoding Chloroplast DNA Sequences. Int J Plant Sci, 164(2): 229-237.
  • Mandak B, Mohammadi V, Hadian J. 2020. Evaluation of genetic diversity of Iranian native thyme using ISSR molecular markers. Iranian J Field Crop Sci, 51(2): 75-85.
  • Martinez-Nataren DA, Parra-Tabla V, Ferrer-Ortega MM, Calvo-Irabien LM. 2014. Genetic diversity and genetic structure in wild populations of Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens B.K.) and its relationship with the chemical composition of the essential oil. Plant Syst Evol, 300: 535–547.
  • Monfared MA, Samsampour D, Sharifi-Sirchi G, Sadeghi F. 2018. Assessment of genetic diversity in Salvadora persica based on inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) genetic marker. J Gen Eng Biotech, 16: 661–667.
  • Nei M .1973. Analysis of gene diversity in subdivided populations. Proc Natl Acad Sci, 70:3321-3323.
  • Okba M, Baki P, Khaleel A, El-Sherei M, Salem M. 2020. Discrimination of common Iris species from Egypt based on their genetic and metabolic profiling. Phytochemical Analysis, 1–11.
  • Ovesná J, Poláková K, Leisová 2002. DNA analyses and their applications in plant breeding. Czech J Genet Plant Breed, 38: 29-40.
  • Ray A, Jena S, Haldar T, Sahoo A, Kar B, Patnaik J, Ghosh B, Panda PC, Mahapatra N. 2019. Population genetic structure and diversity analysis in Hedychium coronarium populations using morphological, phytochemical and molecular markers. Ind Crop Prod, 132: 118–133.
  • Saghai-Maroof MA, Biyashav RM, Zhang Q, Allard W. 1994. Extraordinary polymorphic microsatellite DNA in Barley: Species diversity, chromosomal locations and population dynamics. Proc Natl Acad Sci, 91: 5466-5470.
  • Shmakova NYu, Markovskaya EF. 2010. Photosynthetic pigments of plants and lichens inhabiting arctic tundra of West Spitsbergen, Russ. J. Plant Physiol, 57: 764–769.
  • Shao Q, Wang H, Guo H, Zhou A, Huang Y, Sun Y, Li M. 2014. Effects of shade treatments on photosynthetic characteristics, chloroplast ultrastructure, and physiology of Anoectochilus roxburghii. Plos One, 9: 85996.
  • Karlovsky P, Varma A. 2007. Secondary Metabolites in Soil Ecology. In Soil Biology Volume 2. Edited by: New York: Springer, 1-19.
  • Lobato A, Gonçalves-Vidigal M, Vidigal Filho P, Andrade C, Kvitschal M, Bonato C. 2010. Relationships between leaf pigments and photosynthesis in common bean plants infected by anthracnose, N. Z. J. Crop Hortic. Sci, 38(1): 29-37.
  • Santos C, Fragoeiro S, Phillips A. 2005. Physiological response of grapevine cultivars and a rootstock to infection with Phaeoacremonium and Phaeomoniella isolates: an in vitro approach using plants and calluses. Sci Hortic, 103: 187-198.
  • Sharma A, Kumar V, Shahzad B. Photosynthetic Response of Plants Under Different Abiotic Stresses: A Review. J Plant Growth Regul, 39: 509–531.
  • Simkin AJ, Moreau H, Kuntz M, Pagny G, Lin C, Tanksley S, McCarthy J. 2008. An investigation of carotenoids biosynthesis in Coffea canefora and Coffea arabica. J Plant Physiol, /165: 1087-1106.
  • Sutherland WJ. 1990. Biological flora of the British isles. Iris pseudacorus J Ecol 78: 833–848.
  • Souza, C.P.F., Ferreira, C.F., de Souza, E.H., Neto, A.R.S., Marconcini, J.M., da Silva Ledo, C.A., Souza, F.V.D. 2017. Genetic diversity and ISSR marker association with the quality of pineapple fiber for use in industry. Ind. Crops Prod, 104: 263–268.
  • Tan XL, Fan Z, Kuang J, Lu WJ, Reiter RJ, Lakshmanan P, Su XG, Zhou J, Chen JY, Shan W. 2019. Melatonin delays leaf senescence of Chinese flowering cabbage by suppressing ABFs-mediated abscisic acid biosynthesis and chlorophyll degradation. J Pineal Res, 6 e12570.
  • Tarbeeva DV, Fedoreev AA, Veselova MV. 2015. Polyphenolic metabolites from Iris pseudacorus Chem Nat Compd, 51(3): 451-455.
  • Toledo AV, Franco ME, Medina R, Lenicov MM .2019. Assessment of the genetic diversity of Argentinean isolates of Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) using ISSR markers. J King Saud Univ Sci, 31: 1264–1270.
  • Wang J, He J, Chen H, Chen Y, Qiao F .2017. Genetic Diversity in Various Accessions of Pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] Using ISSR and SSR Markers. Biochem Genet, DOI: 1007/s10528-017-9803-z.
  • Wang J, Yang L, Qiu X, Liu Y, Zhou W, Wan Y .2013. Diversity analysis of Beauveria bassiana isolated from infected silkworm in southwest China based on molecular data and morphological features of colony. World J Microb Biotechnol, 29: 1263–1269.
  • Wendelbo P .1997. Tulips and Irises of Iran and Their Relatives. Botanical Institute of Iran Tehran Iran First Edition.
  • Zhang S, Ma K, Chen L .2003. Response of photosynthetic plasticity of Paeonia suffruticosa to changed light environments. Environ Exp Bot, 49(2): 121-133.
  • Zhang X, He D, Niu G, Yan Z, Song J .2018. Effects of environment lighting on the growth, photosynthesis, and quality of hydroponic lettuce in a plant factory. Int J Agri Biol Eng, 11(2): 33–40.